VERBS used as ADJECTIVES
Một số động từ được dùng như tính từ khi ở dạng "-ing" hoặc "-ed" để mô tả danh từ .
1. Hiện tại phân từ (Present Participle) "-ing": The VERB is what the NOUN is doing. (Active - Progressive) - Động từ là những gì danh từ đang thực hiện (thể Chủ động - Tiếp diễn)
Examples: The smiling baby is really cute.
=> smile (verb) + ing = smiling (present participle)
=> (the) baby (noun)
=> The baby is smiling.
The laughing children are having fun.
=> laugh + ing = laughing (present participle)
=> children (noun)
=> The children are laughing.
We tried to listen, but it was a boring story.
=> bore + ing = boring (present participle)
=> story (noun)
=> The story was boring.
Everyone at the zoo enjoyed seeing the sleeping tigers.
=> sleep + ing = sleeping (present participle)
=> tigers (noun)
=> The tigers were slepping.
Our trip to the Far East was a growing experience.
=> grow + ing = growing (present participle)
=> experience (noun)
=> The experience was growing.
2. Quá khứ phân từ (Past Participle) "-ed": The VERB is what the NOUN is done. (Passive) - Động từ là những gì danh từ được thực hiện (thể Bị động)
Examples: The smoked salmon was delicious.
=> smoke + ed = smoked (past participle)
=> salmon (noun)
=> The salmon was smoked.
The fried chicken is just out of this world!
=> fry + ed = fried (past participle)
=> chicken (noun)
=> The chicken is fried.
The washed car looked like a new car.
=> wash + ed = washed (past participle)
=> car (noun)
=> The car was washed.
The polished shoes were a brilliant black.
=> polish + ed = polished (past participle)
=> shoes (noun)
=> The shoes were polished.
Although he is a disabled person, David is optimistic and very talented.
=> disable + ed = disabled (past participle)
=> person (noun)
=> The persone is disabled.
- The "V-ing" form is the cause: nguyên nhân/nguyên do gây ra/làm cho...
- The "V-ed" form is the effect: kết quả/(sự) ảnh hưởng.
Examples: If you watch a boring movie -> the viewers are bored.
Cause = boring movie (thing) (The movie is boring.)
Effect = bored viewers (people)
If you see as entertaining play -> the audience is entertained.
Cause = entertaining play (thing) (The play is entertaining.)
Effect = entertained audience (people)
When you read an inspiring book -> the readers are inspired.
Cause = inspiring book (The book is inspiring.)
Effect = inspired readers.
I dislike listening to boring people. -> I am bored.
Beth ordered a coffee from a bored-looking waiter. -> Something made him look bored.
Generally, I can listen to a boring person, but not for long.
I am bored and tired while listening to a boring conversation.
I won't listen when the content of a conversation is boring.
Listening to boring people about boring content makes me tired, sleepy, and bored.
I am not willing to listen to boring people about boring content.